Resources from our partners:

This information is provided as a resource for legal professionals. The articles and materials on legal developments in the human trafficking field are provided here to add to your general understanding of these issues only.  The library is not intended as a source of legal advice. Further technical assistance for pro bono attorneys may also be obtained by contacting the Human Trafficking Legal Center at [email protected]

Child Trafficking Victims’ Routes to Federal Benefits (U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops)

Request for Assistance for Child Victims of Human Trafficking (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Legal Services Assessment for Trafficked Children: Cook County, Illinois Case Study (Loyola University, Chicago, 2013)
Identifies the legal needs of child trafficking victims.

Foreign Legal Assistance Guide (EarthRights International, March 2020)

Fazenda Brasil Verde vs. Brazil – Unoffical English Translation of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) decision from October 2016, (The Human Trafficking Legal Center, 2020)

Using Anti-trafficking Laws to Advance Workers’ Rights, (Sargent Shriver National Center on Poverty Law, 2015)

Palermo’s Promise: Victims’ rights and human trafficking, Martina E. Vandenberg, Anti-Trafficking Review, Issue 6, pp. 138–141 (2016)

Ending impunity, securing justice: Using strategic litigation to combat modern-day slavery and human trafficking by Martina Vandenberg (HT Pro Bono and the Freedom Fund, 12/15/15)

Civil Litigation on Behalf of Victims of Human Trafficking (Southern Poverty Law Center, 2008)

Carazani v. Zegarra, 2013 WL 5303492 (D.D.C. July 3, 2013)  Sample Case

Human Trafficking, Bribery and Corruption (Trace International, Nicole Fulk and Martina Vandenberg, May 2021)

International Bar Association (Human Trafficking and Public Corruption, 2016)

Model Petition for Remission or Mitigation of a Criminal or Civil Forfeiture Action by the United States Department of Justice, Department of Justice

General Information for Victims, Money Laundering and Asset Recovery Section (MLARS), Department of Justice

Returning Forfeited Assets to Crime Victims FAQ Brochure, Department of Justice (March 2017)

Breaking the Law: The Failure to Award Mandatory Criminal Restitution to Victims in Sex Trafficking Cases, Alexandra F. Levy and Martina E. Vandenberg, Saint Louis University Law Journal, Vol. 60 (Fall 2015)

When “Mandatory” Does Not Mean Mandatory:  Failure to Obtain Criminal Restitution in Federal Prosecution of Human Trafficking in the United States, Wilmer Hale and The Human Trafficking Pro Bono Legal Center (September 2014)

Restitution & Asset Forfeiture: A Focus on Human Trafficking, AEquitas (April 2014)

Assisting Human Trafficking Victims with Return of Property and Restitution, Lou Longhitano and Charlene Whitman, AEQUITAS, Issue 21 (February 2014)

Ensuring Full Restitution for Trafficking Victims: An Overview of Mandatory Restitution Awards Under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act,Victim Law Bulletin, National Crime Victim Law Institute, Lewis & Clark Law School (November 2013)

Making Restitution Real: Five Case Studies on Improving Restitution Collection, The National Center for Victims of Crime (2011)

U.S. v. Lewis, Memorandum Opinion, 09-cr-00213 (D.D.C. June 13, 2011)

Mandatory Restitution: Complying with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, William E. Nolan, The United States Attorneys’ Bulletin, Vol. 65 Num. 6 (2017)

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (United Nations, 1961)

Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (United Nations, 1963)

How to prevent human trafficking for domestic servitude in diplomatic households and protect private domestic workers, (Office of the Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2014)

Diplomatic Immunity and the Abuse of Domestic Workers: Criminal and Civil Remedies in the United States, Martina E. Vandenberg & Sarah Bessell, 26 Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, pp. 595-633 (2016)

Instructions for applying for deferred action for holders of A-3 or G-5 Visas (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)

Hidden in the Home: Abuse of Domestic Workers with Special Visas in the United States, (Human Rights Watch, 2001)

Human Trafficking and Diplomatic Immunity: Impunity No More?, Martina E. Vandenberg & Alexandra F. Levy, 7 Intercultural Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 77 (2012)

Achieving Accountability for Migrant Domestic Worker Abuse, Janie A. Chuang, 88 N. C. L. Rev. 1627 (2010)

Does Immunity Mean Impunity? The Legal and Political Battle of Household Workers Against Trafficking and Exploitation by Their Foreign Diplomat Employers, Jennifer Hoover Kappus, 61 Case Western Reserve L. Rev. 269 (2010)

Swarna and Baoanan: Unraveling the Diplomatic Immunity Defense to Domestic Worker Abuse, Emily F. Siedell, 26 Md. J. Int’l L 173 (2011)

Unlocking the Doors to Justice: Protecting the Rights and Remedies of Domestic Workers in the Face of Diplomatic Immunity, Amy Tai, American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law. 17, no.1 (2007)

U.S. Government’s Efforts to Address Alleged Abuse of Household Workers by Foreign Diplomats with Immunity Could be Strengthened,” GAO Report to the Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate (U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2008)

Unprotected Work, Invisible Exploitation: Trafficking for the Purpose of Domestic Servitude (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 2010)

Declaration on the Petition Alleging Violations by the United States of America of the Human Rights of Domestic Workers Employed by Diplomats Amicus Brief: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (Sarah L. Bessell, The Human Trafficking Legal Center, March 1, 2021)

Empty Judgments: The Wage Collection Crisis in New York (Urban Justice Center, The Legal Aid Society, and National Center for Law and Economic Justice, 2015)

T-Visa Application (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)

Instructions for Completing a T-Visa Application (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)

8 CFR § 214.11 – T Visa Regulations, T-visa application instructions

8 CFR § 212.16 – T Visa Grounds of Inadmissibility, T-visa application instructions

Immigration Options for Victims of Crimes (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)

Immigration Relief for Victims of Human Trafficking and Other Crimes (Information for Law Enforcement Officials, Homeland Security, Blue Campaign)

Useful Documents for Attorneys Representing Asylum Seekers (National Immigrant Justice Center)

Identification and Legal Advocacy for Trafficking Survivors (New York Anti-Trafficking Network Legal Subcommittee, 2009)

T Nonimmigrant Status Overview (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)
For victims of a severe form or human trafficking to allow victims to remain in the U.S. to assist federal authorities in the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking offenses.

Field Assistance Bulletin No. 2011-1 – Addendum: Certification of Supplement B Forms, of U Nonimmigrant and T Nonimmigrant Visa Applications (U.S. Department of Labor, April 2, 2015)

U Visa Application (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)
For victims of serious crimes who have suffered physical or mental abuse and assisted law enforcement officials in the investigation or prosecution of illegal activity.

Immigration Relief for Crime Victims: The U Visa Manual (New York Anti-Trafficking Network)

T Visa Manual: Identification and Legal Advocacy for Trafficking Survivors by Suzanne B. Seltzer, Song Kim, Lynly Egyes, and Andrea Panjwani

Advanced Issues In T and U Visas by Salima Khakoo, Karl Krooth, and Gail Pendleton

U and T Visa Law Enforcement Resource Guide (Department of Homeland Security)

Practice Pointer: DHS Freedom of Information Act Requests (ASISTA)

FLEX’s Labour Exploitation Accountability Hub – provides a broad inventory of national laws and regulations addressing corporate accountability for severe labour exploitation in supply chains. Countries include: Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, India, Philippines, Qatar, Thailand, United Kingdom, and United States.

Effective Communication with the Legal Services Client—how to meet the unique needs of the pro bono client (Practicing Law Institute, massive open online course, 2015)

Meeting the Legal Needs of Human Trafficking Victims: An Introduction for Domestic Violence Attorneys & Advocates (American Bar Association, 2009)

Lawyer’s Manual on Human Trafficking: Pursuing Justice for Victims (New York State Judicial Committee on Women in the Courts; Jill Laurie Goodman & Dorchen A. Leidholdt eds., 2013)

A Guide for Legal Advocates Providing Services to Victims of Human Trafficking (U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, Migration and Refugee Services, Catholic Legal Immigration Network, & the Legal Aid Foundation of Los Angeles, 2004)

Trafficking: Considerations & Recommendations for Battered Women’s Advocates (Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence, 2012)

Voices for Victims: Lawyers Against Human Trafficking Tool Kit for Bar Associations (American Bar Association Task Force on Human Trafficking)

Fact Sheet: Distinctions between Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking (U.S. Department of State, 2006)

U.S. Attorney’s Bulletin 65(6) (Human Trafficking, Nov. 2017)

FinCEN Guidance on Recognizing Activity that May be Associated with Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking – Financial Red Flags  (US Dept. of the Treasury Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Sept. 11, 2014)

Follow the Money: Financial Crimes and Forfeiture in Human Trafficking Prosecutions, Elizabeth G. Wright, The United States Attorneys’ Bulletin, Vol. 65 Num. 6 (2017)

Representing Victims of Human Trafficking in Massachusetts:  A Guide for Attorneys, Dara Goodman, Stephanie Neely, and Michaela Sewall (Wilmer Hale, Lutheran Social Services, and BU School of Law, 2013)

Human Trafficking Laws in the States (National Conference of State Legislatures)

An Advocate’s Guide to Tax Issues Affecting Victims of Human Trafficking (The Human Trafficking Legal Center, Ropes & Gray LLP, The University of Baltimore School of Law Human Trafficking Prevention Project, and The University of Baltimore School of Law Low-Income Taxpayer Clinic, 2019)

The Intersection Between Tax Law & Human Trafficking: Advice for Legal Practitioners (The University of Baltimore School of Law Low-Income Taxpayer Clinic, The University of Baltimore School of Law Human Trafficking Prevention Project, and Maryland Volunteer Lawyers Service, 2019)

Forced Labor Frequently Asked Questions (U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 2019)

Section 307 Tariff Act Submissions Template (The Human Trafficking Legal Center, April 2020)

Practice Guide: Post Conviction Advocacy for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Guide for Attorneys (ABA Survivor Reentry Project 2017)

Survivor Reentry Project (ABA Commission on Domestic & Sexual Violence, 2016) – SRP provides national training and technical assistance for attorneys working with survivors of human trafficking who have been convicted of a crime as a result of their victimization)

Innocent Traffickers, Guilty Victims: The case for prosecuting so-called ‘bottom girls’ in the United States, Alexandra F. Levy,  Anti-Trafficking Review, Issue 6, pp. 130–133 (2016)

Clearing the Slate: Seeking Effective Remedies for Criminalized Trafficking Victims, CUNY Law School International Women’s Human Rights Clinic (February 2014)

Changing Lives Warped by Human Trafficking, Former ABA President Laurel Bellows, Op-Ed, (Newsday, 1/11/2013)

Vacating Criminal Convictions for Trafficked Persons: A Legal Memorandum for Advocates and Legislators, Melissa Broudo and Sienna Baskin (Sex Workers Project, April 2012)

Vicarious Trauma (Office for Victims of Crime Training & Technical Assistance Center)

The Trauma-Informed Code of Conduct Rachel Witkin and Dr Katy Robjan, The Helen Bamber Foundation (October 2018)

Considerations and Recommendations on Trauma-Informed Advocacy for Trafficking Survivors (Asian Pacific Institute on Gender-Based Violence, 2017)

Integrating a Trauma-Informed Response in Violence Against Women and Human Trafficking Prosecutions, Viktoria Kristiansson and Charlene Whitman-Barr, AEQUITAS, Issue 13 (February 2015)

Understanding the Mindset of a Human Trafficking Victim (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

WHO Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Interviewing Trafficked Women (World Health Organization, 2003)

Services Available to Victims of Human Trafficking (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012)

Attorney General’s Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance (2012)

SAMSHA’s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, July 2014)

Transgender People, Intimate Partner Abuse, and the Legal System, Leigh Goodmark, Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, vol. 13 (2013)

Understanding the Complexities of Sex Work/Trade and Trafficking: a companion reader to War on Terror and War on Trafficking, Emi Koyama (Confleure Publications, 2011)

The Trafficking of Youth With Disabilities: What Service Providers Need To Know (International Organization for Adolescents (IOFA), 2020)

How to Identify and Communicate with Human Trafficking Victims with an Intellectual and/or Developmental Disability Webinar, The Office for Victims of Crime Training & Technical Assistance Center (April 2014) – Session focuses on how to identify a human trafficking victim with an intellectual and/or developmental disability (I/DD), how to talk to clients about those issues, common case management and victim service challenges surrounding confidentially and privilege and strategies to address them, tips for communicating with a human trafficking victim with an I/DD, and resources to utilize when working with a human trafficking victim with an I/DD.

Disability Justice Online Resources (Disability Justice, 2016)

Minnesota Governor’s Council on Developmental Disabilities Resource Center

Trafficking of Persons with Disabilities in the United States Fact Sheet (The Human Trafficking Pro Bono Legal Center, 2016)

Victims with Physical, Cognitive, or Emotional Disabilities (Office for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center, 2016)

Webinar: Human Trafficking of Individuals with Disabilities (The Human Trafficking Legal Center & the National Disability Rights Network, 2016). Transcript available here.

Anti-Trafficking Review: Prosecuting Human Trafficking, Anne T. Gallagher (Ed.), Issue 6 (2016)

The Slavery Research Library—Contains all articles featured to date in the Slavery Research Bulletin as well as other selected documents. Designed to provide easy access to the leading research on slavery related issues and allow users to search by keyword, region or type of research.

The Coercion of Trafficked Workers, Kathleen Kim, 96 Iowa L. Rev. 409 (2011)

Human Trafficking Private Right of Action: Civil Rights for Trafficked Persons in the United States, Kathleen Kim & Kusia Hreshchyshyn, 16 Hastings Women’s L.J. 1 (2004)

The Case of the Missing Case: Examining the Right of Action for Human Trafficking Victims, Jennifer S. Nam, 107 Colum. L. Rev. 1655 (2007)

Sex Trafficking and the Sex Industry: the Need for Evidence-Based Theory and Legislation, Ronald Weitzer, 101 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 1337 (2011)

Representations and Misrepresentations of Human Trafficking, Galma Jahic and James O. Finckenauer, Trends in Organized Crime, Vol. 8, Issue 3 (2005)

Benchbook on International Law (American Society of International Law, 2014)

Federal Prosecution Training: Forced Labor and Extraterritorial Jurisdiction (U.S. Department of Defense)

Human Trafficking, Executive Office for United States Attorneys, The United States Attorneys’ Bulletin, Vol. 65 Num. 6 (2017)